Among the Hausa, children play a unique instrument in which they beat rhythms on the inflated stomach of a live, irritated pufferfish. Although percussion instruments are omnipresent, Nigeria's traditional music uses a number of diverse instruments. Many, such as the xylophoneare an integral part of music across West Africa, while others are imports Oniya Awa Lolare - Domingo Justus - Juju Music in Nigeria 1928 the Muslims of the Maghrebor from Southern or East Africa; other instruments have arrived from Europe or the Americas.
The xylophone is a tuned idiophonecommon throughout west and central Africa. In Nigeria, they are most common in the southern part of the country, and are of the central African model. Several people sometimes simultaneously play a single xylophone. The instruments are usually made of loose wood placed across banana logs. Pit- and box-resonated xylophones are also found. Ensembles of clay pots beaten with a soft pad are common; they are sometimes filled with water.
Although normally tuned, untuned examples are sometimes used to produce a bass rhythm. Hollow logs are also used, split lengthways, with resonator holes at the end of the slit. They were traditionally used to communicate over great distances. Various bells are a common part of royal regalia, and were used in secret societies. They are usually made of iron, or in Islamic orchestras of the north, of bronze.
Sometimes, especially in the north, gourds are placed upside-down in water, with the pitch adjusted by the amount of air underneath it. In the south-west, a number of tuned gourds are played while floating in a trough. Scrapers are common throughout the south. One of the most common types is a notched stick, played by dragging a shell across the stick at various speeds. It is used both as a women's court instrument and by children in teasing games.
Among the Yoruba, an iron rod may be used as a replacement for a stick. Rattles are common, made of gourds containing seeds or stones are common, as are net-rattles, in which a string network of beads or shells encloses a gourd. Rattles are typically played in ritual or religious context, predominantly by women.
Drums of many kinds are the most common type of percussion instrument in Nigeria. They are traditionally made from a single piece of wood or spherical calabashes, but have more recently been made from oil drums.
The hourglass drum is the most common shape, although there are also double-headed barrel drums, single-headed drums and conical drums. Frame drums are also found in Nigeria, but may be an importation from Brazil. An unusual percussion instrument is the udua kind of vessel drum.
This instrument is very essential in most African countries. The musical bow is found in Nigeria as a mouth-resonated cord, either plucked or struck. It is most common in the central part of the country, and is associated with agricultural songs and those expressing social concerns.
Cereal stalks bound together and strings supported by two bridges are used to make a kind of raft-zither, played with the thumbs, typically for solo entertainment. The arched harp is found in the eastern part of the country, especially among the Tarok. It usually has five or six strings and pentatonic tuning. A bowl-resonated spike-fiddle with a lizard skin table is used in the northern region, and is similar to central Asian and Ethiopian forms. The Hausa and Kanuri peoples play a variety of spike-lutes.
A variety of brass and woodwind instruments are also found in Nigeria. These include long trumpetsfrequently made of aluminium and played in pairs or ensembles of up to six, often accompanied by a shawm. Wooden trumpets, gourd trumpets, end-blown flutes, cruciform whistles, transverse clarinets and various kinds of horns are also found.
Many African countries have seen turbulence and violence during their forced transition from a diverse region of folk cultures to a group of modern nation states.
Nigeria has experienced more difficulty than most African countries in forging a popular cultural identity from the diverse peoples of the countryside. The earliest styles Oniya Awa Lolare - Domingo Justus - Juju Music in Nigeria 1928 Nigerian popular music were palm-wine music and highlifewhich spread in the s among Nigeria and nearby countries of LiberiaVol.
1 (Vinyl, Sierra Leone and Ghana. During this time, a few other styles such as apaladerived from traditional Yoruba music, also found a more limited audience. The result was a profusion of new styles in the last few decades of the 20th century, including waka musicYo-pop and Afrobeat. By the start of the 20th century, Yoruba music had incorporated brass instruments, written notation, Islamic percussion and new Brazilian techniques, resulting in the Lagos -born palm-wine style.
The term palm-wine is also used to describe related genres in Sierra LeoneLiberia and Ghana. However, palm-wine originally referred to a diverse set of styles played with string instrumentscharacteristically, guitars or banjos with shakers and hand drums accompanying  This urban style was frequently played in bars to accompany drinking hence the name, which is derived from the alcoholic palm wine beverage.
The first stars of palm-wine had emerged by the s, the most famous of whom was Baba Tunde King. Apala is a style of vocal and percussive Muslim Yoruba music. It emerged in the late s as a means of rousing worshippers after the fasting of Ramadan. Under the influence of popular Afro-Cuban percussionapala developed into a more polished style and attracted a large audience. The music required two or three talking drums omelea rattle sekerethumb piano agidigbo and a bell agogo.
Haruna Ishola was the most famous apala performer, and he later played an integral role in bringing apala to larger audiences as a part of fuji music. Following World War II, Nigerian music started to take on new instruments and techniques, including electric instruments imported from the United States and Europe. Meanwhile, highlife had been slowly gaining in popularity among the Igbo people, and their unique style soon found a national audience.
At the same time, apala 's Haruna Ishola was becoming one of the country's biggest stars. Traditional stars included the Hausa Dan Marayawho was so well known that he was brought to the battlefield during the Nigerian Civil War to lift the morale of the federal troops. Dairo became perhaps the biggest star of African music by the '60s, recording numerous hit songs that spread his fame to as far away as Japan. Inhe became the only African musician ever honoured by receiving membership of the Order of the LP) Empirean order of chivalry in the United Kingdom.
Among the Igbo people, Ghanaian highlife became popular in the early s, and other guitar-band styles from Cameroon and Zaire soon followed. The Ghanaian E. Mensaheasily the most popular highlife performer of the s, toured Igbo-land frequently, drawing huge crowds of devoted fans. During the same period, other highlife performers were reaching their peak. These included Prince Nico Mbarga and his band Rocafil Jazz, whose " Sweet Mother " was a pan-African hit that sold more than 13 million copies, more than any other African single of any kind.
Mbarga used English lyrics in a style that he dubbed pankowhich incorporated "sophisticated rumba guitar-phrasing into the highlife idiom". After the civil war in the s, Igbo musicians were forced out of Lagos and returned to their homeland. The result was that highlife ceased to be a major part of mainstream Nigerian music, and was thought of as being something purely associated with the Igbos of the east.
Apalaa traditional style from Ogun state, one of yoruba state in Nigeria, became very popular in the s, led by performers like Haruna IsholaSefiu Ayan, Kasumu Adio, and Ayinla Omowura. Ishola, who was one of Nigeria's most consistent hit makers between and his death inrecorded apala songs, which alternated between slow and emotional, and swift and energetic.
His lyrics were a mixture of improvised praise and passages from the Quranas well as traditional proverbs. His work became a formative influence on the developing fuji style. The late s saw the appearance of the first fuji bands. Fuji was named after Mount Fuji in Japan, purely for the sound of the word, according to Ayinde Barrister.
Among the genre's earliest stars were Haruna Ishola and Ayinla Omowura; Ishola released numerous hits from the late '50s to the early '80s, becoming one of the country's most famous performers. Fuji grew steadily more popular between the s and '70s, becoming closely associated with Islam in the process. He first changed his group's name to "Fuji Londoners" when he came back from a trip to London, England.
Ayinde's rival was Ayinla Kollington"Baba Alatika", known for fast tempo and dance-able brand of fuji, who also recorded hit albums like "ko bo simi lo'run mo e, in the 80s he released "ijo yoyo, Lakukulala and American megastar" to mention few of his successful albums.
With all due respect Ayinla Kollington is a coherent social commentator. He was followed in the s by burgeoning stars such as Wasiu Ayinde Marshall. Obey's lyrics addressed issues that appealed to urban listeners, and incorporated Yoruba traditions and his conservative Christian faith.
Bands increased from four performers in the original ensembles, to 10 with IK Dairo and more than 30 with Obey and Ade. In the early s, both Obey and Ade found larger audiences outside of Nigeria. Ade's brush with international renown brought a lot of attention from mainstream record companies, and helped to inspire the burgeoning world music industry.
At the very end of the decade, hip hop music spread to the country after being a major part of music in neighboring regions like Senegal.
Two of the biggest stars of the '80s were Segun Adewale and Shina Peterswho started their careers performing in the mid-'70s with Prince Adekunle.
The Yo-pop craze did not last for long, replaced by Shina Peters' Afro-juju style, which broke into the mainstream after the release of Afro-Juju Series 1 Afro-juju was a combination of Afrobeat and fuji, and it ignited such fervor among Shina's fans that the phenomenon was dubbed "Shinamania". Though he was awarded Juju Musician of the Year inShina's follow-up, Shinamania sold respectively but was panned by critics. The same period saw the rise of new styles like the funky juju pioneered by Dele Taiwo.
Afrobeat is a style most closely associated with Nigeria, though practitioners and fans are found throughout West Africa, and Afrobeat recordings are a prominent part of the world music category found throughout the developed world. It is music with elements of highlife, and other styles of West African music. The most popular and well-known performer, indeed the most famous Nigerian musician in history, is undoubtedly Fela Kuti. Fela Kuti began performing inbut did not start playing in his distinctive Afrobeat style until his exposure to Sierra Leonean Afro-soul singer Geraldo Pino in A brief period in the United States saw him exposed to the Black Power movement and the Black Panthersan influence that he would come to express in his lyrics.
After living in London briefly, he moved back to Lagos and opened a club, The Shrine, which was one of the most popular music spots in the city. He started recording with Africa '70a huge band featuring drummer Tony Allenwho has since gone on to become a well-known musician in his own right.
With Africa 70, Kuti recorded a series of hits, earning the ire of the government as he tackled such diverse issues as poverty, traffic and skin-bleaching. InKuti was jailed for five years, but was released after only two years after international outcry and massive domestic protests.
Upon release, Kuti continued to criticise the government in his songs, and became known for eccentric behaviour, such as suddenly divorcing all twenty-eight wives because "no man has the right to own a woman's vagina". His death from AIDS in sparked a period of national mourning that was unprecedented in documented Nigerian history.
In the s, Afrobeat became affiliated with the burgeoning genre of world music. In Europe and North America, so-called "world music" acts came from all over the world and played in a multitude of styles. Fela Kuti and his Afrobeat followers were among the most famous of the musicians considered world music. By the end of the '80s and early '90s, Afrobeat had diversified by taking in new influences from jazz and rock and roll. Following a surprise appearance in place of his father, Fela, Femi Kuti garnered a large fan base LP) enabled him to tour across Europe.
The popular songstress Salawa Abeni had become nationally renowned after the release of Late General Murtala Ramat Mohammed inwhich was the first Nigerian recording by a woman to sell more than a million copies.
In the s, she remained one of the nation's best-selling artists, creating her own unique variety of music called waka; she was so closely associated with the genre that a royal figure, the Alaafin of OyoObalamidi Adeyemicrowned her the "Queen of Waka Music" in Waka music is coming back into the new age with fresh artist like Tila man Timi Korus and Dollar billz bringing back the old school into new school.
In an interview granted by Timi Korus he acknowledge that Waka Music was made popular to younger generations during the time of salawa abeni but waka music has been in the industry in a long time. When talking about reggae music in Nigeria, this brand of music was started by a musician simply called "Terakota". Like many later Nigerian reggae stars, Fashek was a part of the long-running band The Mandators, who toured and recorded incessantly during the mid to late s and early '90s.
Later prominent reggae musicians included Jerri Jheto and Daddy Showkey. The African Caribbean fusion is one that has been popular and growing over the years, especially in the 21st century. In Europe and North America, so-called "world music" acts came from all over the world and played in a multitude of styles. Fela Kuti and his Afrobeat followers were among the most famous of the musicians considered world music acts.
Afrobeat led to the birth of another genre of music, jazz and rock and roll. However, successive artists have refined this spectacular genre and kept the flame burning. Femi and Seun Kuti, two of Fela's sons are among.
Later prominent reggae musicians included Jerri Jheto and Daddy Showkey. The general rapid growth of the entertainment scene with support from the media helped popularise Hiphop music in Nigeria. Television programmes like the MTN Y'ello show, Music Africa, Nigezie, and Soundcity, amongst others played a major role to bring hip pop music to its very present heights. Every tribe in Nigeria has a hip hop artiste either trying to blossom or already blossomed. Eedris Abdulkarem is from Kano State.
This shows that Hip hop is the most encompassing, creating avenues for different people irrespective of tribe or religion to freely express their talents and the fans craving for more. Kudos must be given to the present day artistes who have not let the efforts of the founding fathers be in vain. They have blended the Nigerian culture with the foreign culture to create an international appeal without losing the Nigerian touch in their songs.
The sky is just the beginning as their best is yet to come. Read the original article on Leadership. AllAfrica publishes around reports a day from more than news organizations and over other institutions and individualsrepresenting a diversity of positions on every topic. We publish news and views ranging from vigorous opponents of governments to government publications and spokespersons. Publishers named above each report are responsible for their own content, which AllAfrica does not have the legal right to edit or correct.
Articles and commentaries that identify allAfrica. To address comments or complaints, please Contact us. AllAfrica is a voice of, by and about Africa - aggregating, producing and distributing news and information items daily from over African news organizations and our own reporters to an African and global public.
Toggle navigation. Leadership Abuja. Sign up for free AllAfrica Newsletters Get the latest in African news delivered straight to your inbox. Top Headlines Nigeria Music.
Almost finished We need to confirm your email address. To complete the process, please follow the instructions in the email we just sent you. There was a problem processing your submission. Please try again later. All rights reserved. To contact the copyright holder directly for corrections — or for permission to republish or make other authorized use of this material, click here.
Im In Love With Vienna, Magle, Magle - Merima Njegomir - Vojvođanska Bajka (CD, Album), Nervana - Pink Floyd - The Endless River (CD, Album, Album), Kampf Ohne Ende, Julia Claire - Cat In Disguise (Vinyl), Ever On, Кузнец - Король И Шут - Герои И Злодеи (CD, Album), Complaint - Colornoise - Fake Apocalypse (File, MP3, Album)